美国50万美金投资移民今日大限?“达摩克利斯剑 ”悬而未决?

9月30日今日的美国东部时间,注定使得中国大陆的上万名富豪们辗转反侧,彻夜难眠。美国50万美金投资移民EB-5政策今天将在美国国会重新讨论:

“50万美金涨价至80万美金”?

“区域中心”取消,直投项目才能产生就业?

“目标就业区”取消纽约,洛杉矶一线大城市?

“达摩克利斯剑 Damocles ”悬而未决,各位中国大陆的富豪投资者们,洗洗先睡,可是睡得着吗?

【美国50万美金投资移民EB5项目涨价大限今天(9月30日)到了吗?】

美国50万美金投资移民项目今天是美国国会年度审核期,大限是否来到,且看下面娓娓道来...

【2014年有9200名中国大陆富人申请美国投资移民EB5项目】

EB5项目

【美国《亚特兰大报》发文抨击】

美国《亚特兰大报》2015年9月21日发表题为:国会应该让外国有钱人购买美国绿卡吗?

Should Congress Let Wealthy Foreigners Buy Green Cards?

文章列举了美国投资移民EB5项目给美国低迷经济融资带来的益处,但是笔锋一转...

【纽约“哈德逊城市广场”项目被当做“大城市里没有产生直接就业”的负面典型】

《亚特兰大报》文章特别列出下图的“哈德逊城市广场”项目,

200亿美金的美国纽约哈德逊城市广场 Hudson Yards 项目是美国最大在建工程之一,位于纽约西边,建成以后将有5000套公寓,6个摩天大楼。项目的投资,将使1200个中国大陆投资者(每个申请人投资50万美金)得到美国绿卡

The massive $20 billion Hudson Yards project is one of the nation’s biggest development efforts. When it’s completed on New York’s west side, it will have have 5,000 apartments, six skyscrapers. And one more feature of the project: It has paved the way for the green cards of about 1,200 Chinese millionaires.

纽约哈德逊城市广场

上图是纽约哈德逊城市广场项目

【“区域中心”的由来】

美国投资移民项目始于1990年,当时是规定投资人投资100万美金,在一个直接投资项目上,而且必须直接产生10个就业,或者投资50万美金在失业率高的偏远地区。因为申请人寥寥无几,国会1992年,允许私人企业通过成立“区域中心”的方式,批量募集巨额资金。

Congress established the EB-5 program as part of a general immigration overhaul in 1990. At first, the visa was only for direct investors who spent $1 million and created 10 jobs (a separate provision allowed people investing in rural or high-unemployment areas to spend just $500,000). But applications were sluggish, Yale-Loehr said, so in 1992, Congress decided to also allow private entities (such as Related Companies, the developer of the Hudson Yards company) or regions to apply to be “regional centers” which essentially pool foreign investors’ money.

随着条款修改,国会还允许“区域中心”计算“非直接就业”。

It is these regional centers that have created so much controversy for the EB-5 program. When it changed the law, Congress allowed regional centers to count the number of indirect jobs their project might create, rather than just direct jobs.

【“区域中心” 一宗罪:不产生“直接就业”,面临被取消命运】

文章中对“区域中心”提出诟病的,是在康奈尔法学院教受移民法的法学教授,同时也是一名移民律师的 Steve Yale-Loehr, an immigration lawyer at Miller Mayer and a professor of immigration law at Cornell Law School.

现在超过95%的就业属于“非直接就业”,违背了投资产生就业的法案初衷。

Now, about 95 percent of EB-5 visas are awarded through regional-center programs, rather than through direct jobs.

【“区域中心”二宗罪:随意计算“高失业地区”】

大量的“区域中心”随即产生,现在已经超过800家“区域中心”。

大多数投资人投资50万美金,在移民法案没有精确定义的“目标就业区Targeted Employment Area”,而非美国偏远高失业地区。

Just what constitutes a “Targeted Employment Area” is loose and defined by individual states. The designation was meant to spur investors to put money in rural areas and those with high unemployment.

问题积重难返,导致纽约哈德逊广场,这个位于纽约富人区旁边的项目,因为项目区域内部分地点的高失业统计数据,就使得这个项目堂而皇之地被划入“目标就业区”,从而每个投资人只需要投资50万美金,而非100万美金。

One of the biggest problems, experts say, is that investors can put money into projects like Hudson Yards and earn a green card without actually creating very many jobs, at least not directly.

【国土安全局长提议重新定义“目标就业区” 避免项目位于大城市漏洞】

Jeh Johnson

美国国土安全局长Jeh Johnson 已经提议修订“目标就业区”定义,严防漏洞。

Changing the definition of TEAs was one of the recommendations of Jeh Johnson, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, in an April letter to Congress. Doing so would “prevent gerrymandering,” he suggested.

【没有给美国带来直接就业的“区域中心” 岌岌可危】

“美国就业联盟”正在游说国会,彻底取消“区域中心”,并在华尔街日报上刊登大福广告:“美国需要的直接就业还没有被EB5移民配额满足!”

More American Jobs Alliance (MAJA) argues that Congress should let it do so. “There are more than enough direct-job projects in the country to take up the annual quota of EB-5 visas,” MAJA argued in a paid advertisement in The Wall Street Journal.

【“区域中心” “目标就业区”今日没有判决 早晚会休矣】

康纳尔法学院教授 Yele-Loehr 认为国会已经来不及在9月30日,对“区域中心”以及“目标就业区”做出判决,来不及就搁着,延期6个月是个大概期限

Yale-Loehr thinks there’s not enough time for Congress to make major changes to the program before September 30, so he anticipates the regional-center provision will be renewed for a short period of time, say six months or so, while Congress decides how to overhaul the program.

【“判决书”的起草者“布鲁斯金学院”如是说】

“布鲁斯金学院” Audrey Singer 撰写了一份报告,建议商务部与移民局合作,商务部参与监控项目带来的就业,并建议“区域中心”由就业区居民成立并掌控。

An in-depth Brookings Institution report suggests creating a partnership with the Department of Commerce to administer the program, calling the U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services department “ill-suited” to the task. Commerce could more effectively monitor and collect data on the EB-5 program, ensuring that investors are creating the jobs they say they will, the report argues.

【50万美金涨价至80万美金的由来】

沸沸扬扬半年之久的涨价说,来自美国参议员 Senator Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) and Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont) 今年6月份提出的涨价提案。“目标就业区”50万美金涨价至80万美金,非目标就业区由100万美金,提高到120万美金。
这个“涨价”提案截止笔者发稿为止,还没有定论。

【去向不明 甚至doning nothing “达摩克利斯剑”】

美国国会任内“不作为”并非没有先例。

And then of course there is another option: Doing nothing, which wouldn’t be too surprising during this Congressional term.

“达摩克利斯剑 Damocles ”悬而未决,各位中国大陆的富豪投资者们,洗洗先睡,可是睡得着吗?

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